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Ubuntu supports the ARM architecture. Live images are the typical way for users to assess and subsequently install Ubuntu. These can be downloaded as a disk image. Running Ubuntu in this way is slower than running it from a hard drive , but does not alter the computer unless specifically instructed by the user. If the user chooses to boot the live image rather than execute an installer at boot time, there is still the option to then use an installer called Ubiquity to install Ubuntu once booted into the live environment. Creating a bootable USB drive with persistence is as simple as dragging a slider to determine how much space to reserve for persistence; for this, Ubuntu employs casper.

The desktop edition can also be installed using the Netboot image a. Ubuntu divides most software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available. Free software includes software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements, [79] which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. Exceptions, however, include firmware , in the Main category, because although some firmware is not allowed to be modified , their distribution is still permitted.

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Non-free software is usually unsupported Multiverse , but some exceptions Restricted are made for important non-free software. Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics card drivers. The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code.

It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a complete desktop environment. In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized repository for backporting newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained.


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The -updates repository provides stable release updates SRU of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager. Each release is given its own -updates repository e. The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd. All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public.

In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads which must be confirmed before being copied into -updates. All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression. Canonical's partner repository lets vendors of proprietary software deliver their products to Ubuntu users at no cost through the same familiar tools for installing and upgrading software. Canonical supports the packaging of the software for Ubuntu [85] [86] [87] and provides guidance to vendors. Ubuntu has a certification system for third-party software.

Additionally, third-party application suites are available for purchase through Ubuntu Software, [92] including many games such as Braid and Oil Rush , [93] software for DVD playback and media codecs. Each Ubuntu release has a version number that consists of the year and month number of the release. Version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed the version number changes accordingly. Ubuntu releases are also given alliterative code names , using an adjective and an animal e.

With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer, at least until restarting the cycle with the release of Artful Aardvark in October Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases which in turn are about one month after releases of X. After major releases, the Ubuntu Developer Summit UDS is held, at which the Ubuntu community sets the development direction for the next cycle.

The latest such event, as of February , [update] was held 5—7 May , after Ubuntu Ubuntu Some versions have optional extended security maintenance ESM support available, including This departed from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October in order to get "the perfect 10", [] and makes a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy books, since, in binary , equals decimal 42 , the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series.

Ubuntu Desktop formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu is the variant officially recommended for most users. It is designed for desktop and laptop PCs and officially supported by Canonical. From Ubuntu These Ubuntu variants simply install an initial set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them. Since version Ubuntu 7.

Linux x64 (AMD64/EM64T) Display Driver

It has up-to-date versions of key server software pre-installed, including: Tomcat v8 , PostgreSQL v9. Another major focus is Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server. As Ubuntu is distributed freely and there is no registration process, Ubuntu usage can only be roughly estimated.

W3Techs analyzes the top 10 million websites only. According to TheCloudMarket. Wikimedia Foundation data based on user agent for September shows that Ubuntu generated the most page requests to Wikimedia sites, including Wikipedia, among recognizable Linux distributions. The public sector has also adopted Ubuntu. Previously, Windows was used in the schools. Textbooks were also remade with an Ubuntu syllabus and are currently used in schools. The city of Munich , Germany, forked Kubuntu In February the majority coalition decided, against heavy protest from the opposition, [] to evaluate the migration back to Windows, [] after Microsoft had decided to move its company headquarters to Munich.

In March , the government of Iceland launched a project to get all public institutions using free and open-source software. Already, several government agencies and schools have adopted Ubuntu.

The government cited cost savings as a big factor for the decision, and also stated that open-source software avoids vendor lock-in. A month project was launched to migrate the biggest public institutions in Iceland to using open-source software, and help ease the migration for others. In , Jamie Hyneman , co-host of the American television series MythBusters , advocated Linux giving the example of Ubuntu as a solution to software bloat. One of the new features of Unity in Ubuntu It was alternately described as the "Amazon controversy", [] [] "privacy fiasco" [] and "spyware".

If the user clicked on one of these results and then bought something, Canonical received a small commission on the sale. In , many reviewers criticized it: as the home lens is the normal means to search for content on the local machine, reviewers were concerned about the disclosure of queries that were intended to be local, creating a privacy problem. Some users chose to turn it off or to remove the feature using a patch. For the move, it was awarded the Austria Big Brother Award. Since Ubuntu The Unity desktop environment was discontinued in Ubuntu In June , Canonical announced that they would be purging support for bit applications and libraries in Ubuntu Because Steam's Linux client depends on these bit libraries, Valve announced that they would no longer be supporting Ubuntu.

After uproar from the Linux gaming community, Canonical backtracked on this decision and decided to support select bit libraries. As a result, Valve will support Ubuntu Soon after being introduced, doubts emerged on the conformance of the shopping lens with the European Data Protection Directive.

Almost one year later the ICO ruled in favour of Canonical, considering the various improvements introduced to the feature in the meantime to render it conformable with the Data Protection Directive.

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List of Linux adopters

However, the ruling also made clear that at the time of introduction the feature was not legal, among other things, since it was missing a privacy policy statement. In an effort to reach out to users who are less technical, and to foster a sense of community around the distribution, Local Communities, [] better known as "LoCos", have been established throughout the world.

Originally, each country had one LoCo Team. However, in some areas, most notably the United States and Canada, each state or province may establish a team. Ubuntu works closely with OEMs to jointly make Ubuntu available on a wide range of devices. Dell sells computers initially Inspiron 14R and 15R laptops pre-loaded with Ubuntu in India and China, with and retail outlets respectively.

PIONEER Magazine October 2012 Issue

In early , Intel launched the Intel Compute Stick small form factor computer available preloaded with Ubuntu or Windows operating systems. In March , Microsoft announced that it would support the Ubuntu userland on top of the Windows 10 kernel by implementing the Linux system calls as a subsystem and in Microsoft announced the new WSL 2 subsystem that includes a Linux kernel , that Canonical announced will have "full support for Ubuntu" [16]. It focuses on command-line tools like Bash and is therefore aimed at programmers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the African philosophy, see Ubuntu philosophy.

For other uses, see Ubuntu disambiguation. Linux distribution based on Debian. See also: Ubuntu version history.


  1. Challenge of Arctic Shipping.
  2. Converting video & audio files using ffmpeg in GNU/Linux.
  3. StatSVN - October Commit Log.
  4. See also: GetDeb. For further information on all Ubuntu releases including older ones not covered here, see Ubuntu version history. Old version. Older version, still supported. Latest version. Latest preview version. Future release. See also: List of Ubuntu-based Third-party distributions. Not to be confused with Linux User Group. Free and open-source software portal Linux portal. Free Software Foundation.

    OTHER LINKS

    Retrieved 14 July Ubuntu Official Documentation. Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 14 December The Ubuntu Story". Retrieved 21 August Ohso Ltd. Retrieved 15 May Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 1 November Ars Technica.

    Manual disk partitioning guide for Linux Mint 9 and Ubuntu | theoterswildcalba.ml

    What about binary compatibility between distributions? Retrieved 4 February Ubuntu Website Bug Tracking [Obsolete]. Canonical Group. Retrieved 31 August — via Launchpad. Debian, reprise". Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original on 30 January OMG Ubuntu.