Traditionally this was extracted from the plant with a long tube, and placed in wooden or leather containers. The addition of already prepared pulque initiated the fermentation process, which could last from a week to a month. Variants of pulque pulque curado might include nuts, fruits, and herbs as sweeteners and flavorings. In the twenty-first century, tequila enjoys worldwide acclaim. Chicha and pulque survived the Conquest and competition from imported beverages. They were admirably suited to the geography and culture of the Andes and Mexico. Ingredients were readily available and production was simple.
This popularity was also due to their ceremonial use, as offerings to the gods to insure good harvests and to provide strength during battle. They were believed to have a range of magical and relating qualities that insured the continuation of the community and the culture. They were also valued for medicinal purposes, useful in combating infection and disease. The nutritional quality of chicha and pulque has been disputed since the sixteenth century, but modern nutritional analysis has demonstrated that both could, depending on ingredients used and the manner of preparation, contain significant amounts of protein, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, and iron, in addition to other nutrients.
Europeans introduced their own beer—made from barley—soon after the Conquest, receiving licenses to manufacture it in Mexico as early as Despite early protection from the crown and efforts to limit consumption of Indian beverages, European beers made slow inroads in Latin America until the late nineteenth century, when a new wave of European immigration prompted changes in alcoholic consumption patterns. Regions receiving the largest numbers of immigrants experienced the most profound changes, but throughout Latin America , even those areas with dense indigenous populations, beer gradually became more popular.
Wine was the staple drink of the Spanish diet in the sixteenth century, and the preference for wine was carried to the New World. Despite the centrality of wine in the Iberian diet, however, it did not become the universal drink of Latin America. In Mexico, the production of wine had a sporadic history, as mercantilist legislation attempted to prevent its production. Disruptions in trade and the need for wine for religious and medicinal purposes led to occasional permission to grow grapes for wine, but it was not until the late nineteenth century that the industry developed in earnest.
Peru, the center of Spanish civilization in South America , supported a flourishing wine industry in its coastal valleys. It hoped to maintain a monopoly of production and supply, but distribution problems led to the development of vineyards in other countries. Eventually, Chile, Argentina, and southern Brazil emerged as important producers. Wine, especially among the immigrant populations of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, became common in the diet.
Since the s, wine production both for domestic consumption and for export has increased. Chile became an important wine exporter in the mid s, followed by Argentina in the early twenty-first century. Chile has a climate and soil suitable for both red and white wine varieties, and its area devoted to cultivation has doubled.
Since the volume of Argentine wine exports has increased twofold, and its value has tripled. Argentina is the fifth largest wine producer in the world, and is known for its trademark Malbec. The introduction of distilled beverages had a profound impact on drinking habits in Latin America. High-alcohol spirits were substituted for low-alcohol traditional beverages and the more expensive European wines and beers.
References to drinking habits from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries suggest widespread indulgence, at least compared with what was deemed socially acceptable. Grape brandy, first imported from Spain, then produced at the successful vineyards established in Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Mexico, provided spirits for increasingly enthusiastic consumers.
The addition of citrus and other flavorings to the beverage helped create variety. Sugar, wherever it was grown in Latin America, was the basis for alcohol production.
In the case of the Caribbean, sugar—and its products of molasses and rum—became one of the foundations of trade patterns linking New England , Europe, West Africa, and Latin America. The Spanish islands and Venezuela soon became known for light, dry rums, while the English islands produced heavier, darker rums.
Drinks made from these spirits have entered the global cocktail lexicon, and taken their place among martinis and manhattans as popular beverages. Two of the most favored are daiquiris, a drink of Caribbean origin, made from rum, fruit juice, and sugar, and margaritas, made from tequila, lemon or lime juice, sugar, and salt.
A rival in taste if not in popularity is the pisco sour, a Peruvian concoction of pisco a grape brandy , citrus juice, and sugar. Brazilian cocktails have not yet achieved the international reputation of margaritas, daiquiris, and pisco sours, but caipirinhas and batidas, made from Aguardiente, fruit juice, and sugar, are worthy contenders. Widespread use and concern about abuse of alcoholic beverages in colonial society led to attempts to regulate their production, distribution, and consumption.
As early as , the Spanish crown considered banning the production of pulque, the prelude to a succession of laws that sought to limit or ban certain types of alcoholic beverages. In some cases the crown's economic motive was clear; in other cases it was hidden behind laments over the moral decay of society. By the eighteenth century, cane brandy had come under as much attack as the local beverages of chicha and pulque. It was the "demon rum" of the colonies that was blamed for most social problems.enter site
beverage - Wiktionary
Excessive drinking disrupted family life, slowed economic production, and caused a range of medical problems. Indians and mestizos drank the most, but Spaniards as well consumed excessive amounts of cheap cane brandy. In Mexico, chinquirito , a type of cane brandy, was widely consumed, though it was only one of a dozen or so "prohibited beverages. Compared with this noxious drink, some officials thought that the traditional pulque was "innocent, healthful, medicinal, and necessary.
The trade in chinquirito had reached a level that negatively affected the wine and brandy producers of Andalusia. As fewer wines and spirits were transported across the Atlantic, taxes shrank and the maritime capacity of Spain was reduced. At stake in the regulatory effort was control over a vast economic activity. In Mexico City alone there were over 1, shops, known by many different names, selling alcoholic beverages. The potential for taxing and licensing income was substantial. One eighteenth-century solution was to centralize control through the awarding of monopolies for production and distribution.
Here the administrative history of spirits finds comparison with that of tobacco, meat, and other colonial products. In Colombia, this included the regulation of anise, which was the most popular local flavoring for aguardiente. As with other monopolistic efforts, success was often elusive. The availability of ingredients and the simple, inexpensive technology required for production undermined the most thorough legislation. Moreover, because local taverns provided income and were important public spaces for Latin America's nonelites, Mexicans resisted colonial officials' attempts at regulation.
Chemical Composition of Beverages and Drinks
The political explanation for the control of alcoholic beverages invariably pointed to the social and health problems related to drinking, even though medical thought continued to argue in the late eighteenth century that alcohol was important for health, especially in hot regions. One important issue, from the sixteenth through the twentieth century, was excessive drinking among Indians, blacks, and castas.
Alcoholic consumption among Indians before the Conquest was associated with religious ceremonies; the availability and distribution of alcoholic beverages was controlled by politics and custom. After the Conquest, drinking became more widespread, leading to accusations by Europeans that drunkenness was extensive among Indians. By the late eighteenth century, there were carefully articulated theories explaining Indian susceptibility to alcohol due to natural temperament, though consumption was at times regulated in Indian communities by social and religious customs that curtailed widespread alcoholic abuse.
The concern over Indian drinking intensified in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. From Mexico to Bolivia, Indian drinking was equated with character and genetic weaknesses. Alcoholism among Indians was referred to as a grave national problem, and began to call forth the efforts of political reformers and educators. Nearby words bevel gear , bevel joint , bevel siding , bevel square , bevel-faced hammer , beverage , beverage room , beveridge , beveridge plan , beverley , beverly. Examples from the Web for beverage And, with Coca-Cola announcing the launch of a new milk product, the beverage could be back in our hands before we know it.
Andy at Yale Roy Eliot Stokes. Punchinello, Vol. Science in the Kitchen.
The Human Race Louis Figuier. A mosaic illustrating slaves serving wine from amphorae Dougga, 3rd c. CE; Image via Wikimedia. In the Greco-Roman context, ice and snow were less a preservative for foodstuffs than a means to make drinks cooler.
Persian ice houses are distinctly conical in shape, made of mud bricks, could be up to 20 meters high, and had deep pits in them that held ice. An ancient ice house in Kashan Image via Flickr, Bastian. A number of Roman writers note Nero's penchant for the drink, and the biographer Suetonius says that as Nero awaited his death at his villa outside Rome, he took some cold water out of one of his special tanks and noted, " haec est Neronis decocta ": "This is the distilled water of Nero.
A Greek Attic black-figure psykter, ca. The bulbous shape helped to keep liquids cool. Image via Wikimedia.